Martin Parr-The Rhubarb Triangle and Other Stories, Hepworth Gallery, Wakefield

 Study Visit, 12th March 2016

Hepworth Gallery, Parr Show (1 of 1)


Rhubarb Triangle and other stories is a collection of work by the British photographer Martin Parr (b1952). I attended the exhibition with the OCA and this was my 5th study visit and the final visit while doing Expressing Your Vision.

The event was led by OCA tutor Derek Trillo and there we 13 other students at the event. As with my other experiences of OCA study visit, the discussion and engagement with other students was really excellent. I have commented on this before in other blog entries, but I really do enjoy these study visits, they have for me offered a much more engaging and enhanced exhibition experience. The opportunity to talk about the work with like minded individuals is both enriching and really has helped develop my thinking and understanding.  A big thanks to Derek for leading the group and also Eddie Smith from the OCA office team who joined the group for the visit and contributed to the vibrant discourse on Parr and this work.

The Venue

This was my second visit to the Hepworth and I think it is a wonderful exhibition space with large, light and airy galleries. Named after the Sculptor Barbara Hepworth, who attended a school in the city, the current venue replaces a much more traditional building in the centre of the town (now used as a school). As an unashamed  fan of brutalist architecture I love the the interlocking trapezoidal concrete construction of this building which to my mind is utterly inspired. With relatively few visible exterior windows, the light within the gallery during daylight hours is quite frankly remarkable. The exterior of the building’s concrete finish reflects different wavelengths of light in different ways at different times of the day making the external appearance of the structure change in daylight and under artificial light. Having stayed in Wakefield the night before the study visit, I couldn’t resist photographing the Hepworth exterior by night.

Hepworth Gallery, Wakefield (1 of 1)

The Artist

I have always liked the quirky anti establishment tone of Martin Parr’s work although this was the first time I actually saw his work in the flesh, having until now only seen his images in books and on a screen of one sort or another. Parr seems to divide opinions, as evidenced by the initial reaction to his application to join the Magnum Agency. Some long term members of the agency were reportedly unhappy about the potential of him being accepted into this member led collective. Parr is also one of the early British documentary photographers to move to colour during a time when much documentary work was in black and white. Badger (2009) suggest it was Parr’s exposure to the work of friend and fellow photographer Peter Mitchell that made him look at the potential that colour offered to the documentary photographer. William Egglestone and Stephen Shore are also cited as influences in his shift to colour.

This event at the Hepworth was the first major retrospective of Parr’s work since 2002 held at the Barbican.

The Show- in all its parts

-The Rhubarb Triangle

Central to this exhibition was a new commission, the work that is the title of the show. The Rhubarb Triangle is a collection of images made in the geographical area where forced rhubarb is grown, the triangle being made by the Yorkshire towns of Wakefield, Morley and Rothwell. Forced rhubarb is seen in some circles as being a bit of a delicacy and Parr’s work create’s a pictorial narrative journey in the life of forced rhubarb from its planting in the open, where it is then dug up and moved to the long dark rhubarb sheds where by candle light it is tricked into growing quicker, apparently sweetening it. The work then records its subsequent, picking, packing and consumption in a variety of rhubarb based products. I really liked the linear progress of the work that is in effect telling the story of this unusual crop.

That said, the thing that struck me most when I arrived in the exhibitions space was the sheer scale of the work. Presented as large prints, unmounted, unframed and pinned to the wall with what looked like high tech stainless steel drawing pins, the images fell into three broad categories. These were; posed portraits of individuals and/or groups, images recording people in action, whether in the fields, the rhubarb sheds or on the streets of Wakefield at the annual rhubarb festival. The final category of images were product type images of produce that featured rhubarb in its ingredients. This last type of image made a strong link for me to other Parr work around consumerism where he focused in on the minutiae of food and other products . An example of this at the show was the display of work from Parr’s ‘Common Sense’ series (discussed later).

Hepworth Gallery, Rhub (1 of 1)

Apart from the scale and presentation of the images Parr creates for me , a real sense of story in this work that is overt and very transparent. The images themselves which feature the hallmark Parr saturated colours, I felt were really quite beautiful, although I know that not all will agree. The strong pinks and yellows of the rhubarb plants dominated the gallery space although very vivid, I did feel the work was less extreme in the use of colour than other Parr works. The images didn’ t have the ’70s & 80s picture post card colour palette’ of for example: The Last Resort ( discussed later in this review).

I liked all the different categories of image within in the exhibit but some stood out more than others. In particular some of the individual portraits I found to be evocative and inspiring.

The image below is a good example, it is so expressive and could be straight out of a old master painting. Equally some of the images capturing activity have a workshop urgency about them.

Hepworth Gallery, Rhub portrait (1 of 1)

Whether you like Parr’s work or not, his technical execution of this work is to my eye without doubt superb. The level of detail, composition and exposure all serve to  capture his subjects with a high level of technical competence. The range of material sits well and the narrative of the work is clear and concise to my basic sensibilities!

This is perhaps not a surprise as one of the other OCA students alerted me that Parr made nearly 40,000 images in the execution of this work, these were distilled down to this final set. Whilst this sounds a lot (Frank made 7,500 images that became the 74 photographs that is the Americans, all be it in an area of film) I do wonder though, Parr has perhaps an ulterior motive in the scale of his shooting. As part of my preparation for this study visit I watched the BBC Imagine documentary about Parr. One feature of that stood out in this interesting exposition of Parr the man, was his obsession with collecting. In one scene where he is reviewing contact sheets, he says to Alan Yentob that most of the images on the contact sheet are for his archive and will never be printed. Parr seems to be a collector as well as an image maker.

In all, I was really taken with this work which I feel is sophisticated in its intent and executed beautifully and with the undertaking technical excellence they Parr demonstrates in his work. There is a strong sense of labour and tradition exposed in this work and there is something almost ‘out of time’ about what Parr has recorded here. The thing that really struck home was the sense of cultural record created by this work. There was something almost anthropological or ethnographic about the overall effect of the exhibition on me. It made me think much more widely about Parr’s contribution to a record about our culture. For me the work goes beyond art. Unashamedly I am an absolute fan!

It was also an excellent learning opportunity to compare and contrast The Rhubarb Triangle with several of Parr’s well know other works. I will consider these in turn.

-Work and Leisure

Work and Leisure was an assembled work from a range of Parr projects. It was perhaps the largest gallery space and images of work in various forms, were flanked on the opposite wall with images of people at Leisure. The contrast was somewhat obvious and although I found some of the images intriguing and engaging this part of the exhibition didn’t gell for me the way the other works did. I think it was the sense of anything and everything being photographed that perhaps troubled me the most. There were portrait images of coffee shop ’employee of the month, along side images of technicians working on high tech military aircraft, along side engineering workers in the black country. The image below, which  on investigation ( a small BAe logo can be found on close inspection) is I think a scene from the construction of two Trident Submarines has an epic quality and could be a straight publicity image. I got a real sense of Parr the collector in how this exhibit was arranged. I would like to have known more about the curation of this work and how much Parr had a hand in its assembly. My hypothesis is that he did not and this was someone else view of Parr’s work. This is of course just a hunch!

Hepworth Gallery Trident (1 of 1)

That said there was some excellent images within the set, that did reveal something about Parr’s eye or an image, for something interesting that can contribute to a greater whole. The leisure element of the work had a decidedly beach and sea influence ( a nod to Tony Ray Jones perhaps, as well as parr’s own work at seaside towns. There were other images, many of people at various forms of party or celebration.

Hepworth Gallery work and leisure 4 (1 of 1)

Like ‘The Rhubarb Triangle’, this exhibition was predominately printed on a large scale and pinned to the wall. Some of the prints were not particularly flat ( as can be seen in the submarine construction image above) and I think this creates a sense of the temporal and fleeting about the assembly display and ultimate removal of the exhibit. There was no sense of the protection or preciousness of the work, that can be a feature of framed exhibits. I liked the ‘matter of fact’ presentation of these works, the focus was clearly on the content with the presentation being less of an issue.

-Auto Portraits

This is a highly quirky,  but I think a revealing exhibit. In it Parr is photographed in a range of portrait styles and approaches reflecting different cultures and widely differing perspectives on what constituents a portrait to be made a preserved . There is something very whimsical about his face in so many genres, some that are quite tacky to my British cultural sensitivities

autoportrait 1\         LON91159-4

What at first appears to be just plain funny does I think reveal something about how portrait photography differs from culture to culture, indeed how photography and the still image is seen through the lens of different cultures. I am unsure of Parr’s original intent, but seeing all the individual works displayed simultaneously, rather than leafing through a book, made me think much more about how the portrait is a part of peoples lives in different lands. 

On reflection and although I enjoyed seeing it, this work for me did not sit well with the rest of the exhibits and again I pose the question about the curator’s choice in it’s inclusion. I know there are many deciding factors for the curator, one of which might be the artists preference, but also availability can be another critical influencing factor in the the choice of what might form part of a show. I need to learn more about the process of putting on and curating an exhibition. 

-Common Sense

On the far wall of the gallery that contained the ‘Work and Leisure’ display, Parr’s well known exhibit , ‘Common Sense’ was displayed. This is classic Parr, showing his keen eye for detail and his mission for finding and recording the absurd. The work says much about consumerism in the UK and the wider world and the lurid colours attest to the man made artificiality of the world around us.

Hepworth Gallery common ense 2 (1 of 1)

Hepworth Gallery, Common sense (1 of 1)

Made up of lots of individual prints of the same size, the work is assembled into a large grid creating a single work from the assembled pieces. I read in the Taylor’s (2004) review of this work that Parr has no preference for how the work is assembled and so again wondered about the selection in this instance and who made the choice about the order and content?

The work really shows Parr’s use of highly saturated colours in part created by the use of a macro lens and ring flash, allowing the artist to work in very close proximity to his subjects. In many case where people are in the images he must have gained a degree of trust to have been allowed to make some other images. The work also includes lots of ‘objects’ of one sort or another, all making reference to consumerism. 

I really liked the ‘attack on the senses’ that this work creates and out of the absurdity of some of the content comes so quite profound messages about the world about us. This work also reveals more about Parr as an investigator of culture and society.

-The Cost of Living

I had seen this work in book form and struggled with it. In many respects Parr is recording the mundane through the lens of ‘Thatcherite’ Britain in the middle class communities of Bristol. Parr made the work after moving to Bristol and it creates a window on middle class communities, perhaps as a counter to his critics about his focus on poor communities in work’s like the ‘The Last Resort’.

The images contain many of Parr’s recurring themes, consumerism, community and the consumption of food. In his very person style he is able to make images in very close proximity to his subjects, again attesting  to his capacity to gain the trust of those he is photographing.


One thing I really noticed about this set was the less lurid colour palette used. Although Parr still deployed his fill flash and close up lens, and still quite vivid, the work was less extreme than some of he other works.

Of all he works at the show this one engaged me less, perhaps because of my own recollection of Thatcherite Britain in its heyday!

-The Last Resort

This was the work that  I was most familiar with although it was great to see it in person. I have owned the book of this work for some time and all the images were familiar to me.  Focusing on the resort of New Brighton, parr captures images of families and individual in what i always imagine to be holidays or days out. The colour pallet of the work is reminiscent of seaside post crds of the 70’s and 80′ and create a somewhat unnatural view of the world.

The images create mixed notions for me, they raise questions about the subjects and although they show some poignant family moments, they set these moments in some cases against a back drop of squalor. The scenes of bathers and seaside goers enjoying them selves amongst detritus and litter sits uneasily. Although Parr’s intent was perhaps to show not all was well within Thatchers Britain there is something quite unforgettable about this work. particularly those of children in questionable conditions. The recurrent themes of consumerism, food and leisure all appear in this work, further revealing the threat that run through much of his work.


I  know that the work was well received when first shown in Liverpool, but it received a very different reception when shown in London. Parr was accused of exploiting the poor and this critique may well have been an influence in his choice of subject for ‘The most of living’.

All of that said Parr does i believe again she his ability to say some thing greater than the pictorial in this work, he opens a window on the world that might not otherwise have been seen and his images describe something of society, culture and community in 80’s Britain. 

-The Non Conformists

This was a genuinely fascinating collection of images to see, not least because it was the earliest work I had seen of the artist. Made while he lived in Hebden Bridge , the work looks at the communities around the Chapels in the hills above the town. They provide a unique insight into communities that were clearly in transition when he made the work. This part of the exhibition also felt very different to the rest of the exhibition. The simple framing behind glass, work printed at a relatively small size and the layout  of the images was much more like a documentary photographers exhibitions I had seen by other artists. In saying this I am comparing the show to exhibitions of the work of  Cartier Bresson, Kertesz and Brassai, to name just a few. Again I asked my self questions about the nature of the curation and the choices made?

Hepworth Gallery, Wakefield non conformists (1 of 1)

There is a grittiness to the images, very much in the tradition of monochrome documentary photography. That said I think you can see the emerging themes that were to become part of his hallmark. The public consumption of food in particular being a subject he continues to return to. 

Some of the images have a real beauty about them to my eye as well as saying something about the community around the chapels he engaged with. The image below has a stark but simultaneaosly inviting feel and seeing it as a framed print at the exhibition, it had been so well printed that it looked to be illuminated from behind!


Key learning from this study visits

  • Parr’s work is all the more impressive for being seen as prints, I have been a fan of his work and I know have a greater understanding of why. He appeals to my interest in things beyond the image, thins such as the nature of culture and society. Parr is a sociologists photographer whose work contribute to understanding culture and community.
  • Parrs work might be quirky but there is a strong sense of technical prowess. the work is well composed and exposed beautifully, indeed it is full of revealing decisive moments. There is an irony in this, in that I have heard from other students ( although I need to track down a definitive source) that Cartier Breton was vigorously opposed to Parr’s membership of magnum
  • Parr does I believe, create a real senses of narrative in his work, he might have a keen eye for the odd and absurd but he is an accomplished story teller in pictures.
  • Before seeing this work I very much saw Parr as a bit of an oddity making quirky, but none the less beguiling images. I left the show with a strong sense of the seriousness in this work. Parr routes out and makes visible some otherwise hide truths about the world around us. This is far from trivial and really rather important!

Further lines of study

I am keen to explore some of Parr’s influences further, these include; Tony Ray Jones, Peter Mitchell-in particular his: ‘A New Refutation of the Viking 4 Space Mission’ work and Stephen Shore. I also need to learn more about the curation process and will undertake some private research on this theme.


Badger, G. (2009) Quoted from the introductionParr, M (2009) op cit

Parr, M (2009) The Last Resort, Dewi Lewis, London

Taylor, R. (2004) Martin Parr- Common Sense- Tate Summary found at: (Accessed March 2016)

BBC (2003) The World According to Martin Parr, found here ( Accessed March 2016)


Alec Soth: Gathered Leaves- Media Space-Science Museum, London

Study Visit, 23rd January 2016

Soth Tutor-4966


This was my fourth OCA study visits and it proved to be an excellent event. Alex Soth’s work was something I was keen to see  in person and the organisation of this particular study visit led to a much more immersive exhibition experience than usual. It was a large group of students that attended and this added to the enjoyment and the learning opportunities offered during the day. I say an immersive event because of the way that the visit was structured. We started at 10.45am, with our tutor for the day, Helen Warburton, leading a leisurely but well structured tour through the exhibition. The tour through each of the exhibits in turn was augmented with a range of challenging questions for us all to consider. In addition to looking in depth at the work of the artist, Helen also encouraged us all to consider the structure and planning of the exhibition. Although exhibition organisation was an obvious topic to consider, this did make me think about the work in a different manner. After this we gathered and had a working lunch discussing the the exhibition and our reflections on what we had seen and how it made us feel.

This was then followed in the afternoon by a second tour of the exhibition, this time led by Kate Bush the exhibitions curator. This provided an additional and different perspective on the work and also offered a direct link to some of the artists thinking and decision making about the show. I felt better prepared to make the most of the curators tour because I had already looked at and reflected upon the work in the morning. This second tour augmented my understanding of Soth and his work.

We then concluded the day with a really engaging discussion and debate led by Helen that allowed for further layers of meaning to be considered, indeed revealed. In many respects it was an exhausting and long day but I travelled home feeling very fired up about the work I had seen and also with ideas for developing my own work in my somewhat idiosyncratic journey to try and find this illusive notion of personal voice!

Although a voice in my head is telling me I am becoming a bit of a broken record, I do need to say that this short review and reflection upon this OCA study visit doesn’t really do justice to the learning that this event afforded me.

I also need to note at that this stage that following the exhibition I have invested quite a few nights of further research into Soth and his work, in particular looking at a number of interviews and his motivation as an artist and lectures he has given so that I can gain a deeper understating of his work. This was very much in response to the motivating effect that the OCA visit had on me, not just in looking at the work that hung on the walls of the gallery space but also the excellent discussion and dialogue with other students at the event.

I am not sure who reads this blogs beyond me and my OCA tutor, but if there are any new OCA students reading this entry I really do want to extol the virtues of the study visit and the opportunity to discuss, reflect and debate the work at an exhibition with other motivated and engaged OCA students, it is a feature of the OCA that I really enjoy.

Exhibition context

Making a direct reference to Frank’s ‘ The Americans’ Soth traveled across America making the work  in this exhibition. The sum of its parts says something unique and also telling about the state of America and although it has not been made explicit in anything I have read or researched, this work is an ‘insiders’  view so to me is fundamentally different to the work of Frank in the ‘The Americans’

To my developing eye the work weaves between documentary, survey, landscape, portraiture and fine art creating and engaging and thought provoking images whose meaning is well beyond the merely pictorial.

The title of the exhibition ‘Gathered Leaves’  takes its title from the epic Walt Whitman’s epic poem ‘Song of my self’, this was a reworking by Whitman of an earlier work. Gathered leaves is a playful and ambiguous title and might refer to images but also pages in book, indeed a photobook may be referred to as gather leaves? In the same way Whitman reworked his poem over decades, Soth revisits recurrent themes distilling more and more about the american condition and the state of the nation. It is as much a sociological exploration as it is a visual one.

The exhibition was spread over four distinct spaces, each self contained and covering the the four bodies of work that make up the exhibition, Sleeping by the Mississippi, Niagara, Broken Manual and Songbook. Soth is clear that this is not a retrospective, suggesting to Brad Feuerhelm in his interview for American Suburb X that he is too young to have retrospective. Kate Bush ,Curator of the exhibit refereed to it a s ‘mid career, review. There is a real sense of progression not only in Soth’s development as an artist but also in his approach to sharing working. All of the exhibition rooms contain display cases with artefacts (maquette’s and finished photobooks) charting the development of Soth’s visual ideas and themes.

This is important because Soth himself suggests that the photo book is the ultimate medium to transmit work. In the interview with Feuerhelm he suggests:

“but still the book is kind of the ultimate container, shows come and go the book lives on”

Sleeping by the Mississippi

Sleeping by the Mississippi is a haunting collection of images that to me were filled with paradox and ambiguity. It is perhaps an example of landscape photography as metaphor but also as biography. Soth produced the work through a fairly epic road trip following the path of the Mississippi, which starts in the north near his home town and ends up more than 2000 mile later reaching the sea at the Gulf of Mexico. The work tells of his journey and engagement with people along the way. To european observers like myself, the Mississippi conjures up notions of the deep south, so this was immediately challenged by the opening images which are of snow covered landscapes of northern states in winter.  


An immediately visible irony is that the river rarely appears in the pictures. Exploring the themes of religion, dreams, people and places along the way, the images were all quite beautiful and technically excellent. Shot with a 10×8 view camera the images in the gallery all looked to be predominantly 20×24 framed colour prints river which rarely appears in any of the images.  

Soth’s engagement with people comes through strongly in this work, in part perhaps through the slow and intensive process of using a large view camera. He needed to engage with the subjects to gain their trust, not least so that they were patient through the time it takes to prepare and make an image with a view camera. although there is a wide range of images, Charles Lindbergh’s bed( there are many images of beds and couches), Johnny Cash’s childhood home, convicts in a work detail working on the roadside and individuals who have shared their dreams in writing with Soth as part of the project.  

Copyright Alec Soth

A large vitrine in the centre of the gallery displayed various iterations of the photobook of the exhibit. This was particularly engaging because the contents ranges from the artist original Zine like machetes to very reversions of the final print volumes. It was really good to see how the work had developed. This first gallery also proved to be an excellent introduction to the work Soth and good preparation for what was to come next galleries.


The next gallery contained ‘Niagara’, Soth’s study of this settlement on the Canadian border famous for its falls and cheap wedding motels. Described in the exhibition notes as the location of ‘spectacular suicide and affordable honeymoons’.

Niagara was created over 7 visits by Soth to Niagara Falls and its surrounding areas. The location again suggests contrast and contradiction,  it being a place where people go to get married and also to commit suicide.

That said the first thing that struck me though about this work was the huge jump in scale when compared to Sleeping by the Mississippi. The full effect of Soth’s use of a 10×8 large format  really jumps out. The prints were all on grand scale with all being many feet in dimensions.

Alec-Soth niag falls

Copyright Alec Soth

Central in the gallery was a picture of the falls taken from the tourist viewpoint and reflecting the postcards sold at the location and many peoples view of this location. It is a beautifully composed classic landscape image right down to the minutiae of detail in the clouds.


Many of the other images contrast with the grandeur of the falls, for example ‘Impala’, which I imagine is the name of the somewhat tacky looking motel, more reminiscent of a Watford industrial estate than a dream wedding location.  Soth is making a statement here about how trite this place is yet people for there for what is sometimes described as the happiest day of their lives!

Soth Niagara-4974

There were a lot of images of people, brides, couples, a swimmer, a very gaunt and a sad looking girl with her baby. If it was his intention to create a sense of a place of sadness but he achieved this. I think it was in this exhibit that he really anchored his ability to create a real sense of the emotions and culture of a place and whilst he may have been using landscape as metaphor, he was also in my opinion using landscape to share some  deep cultural insights. In addition to the melecholoc feel of some of the images there was also something almost whimsical, again demonstrating his ability to create a sense of place, with a capacity to go beyond mere location and explore culture, emotions and the ives of those that pass through a place.

A vitrine in the centre of the gallery space had a strange collection of artefacts,  maquette’s and love letters that the people he had met shared with him. It was clear from the display case contents that Soth is able to really gain trust and engagement with the people he photographs, they give him far more than just their likenesses on film!


This was the third element of the exhibition and to me represented an altogether darker series of work. Initially inspired by the flight and subsequent fugitive in hiding story of  Eric Rudolph, the  Olympic Bomber, Soth began to explore individuals who took themselves ‘off grid’ and into the wilderness. America still has space enough for people to hide and this work explores many aspects of this fact.

There was a much darker feel to this work and this was also reflected in the subdued lighting of the exhibition space, bright  sptlights illuminated the works isn the darkened gallery.

Soth Broken Manual 1-4976

During his research Soth came across online communities of survivalists, individuals and groups, living on the margins or wilderness and certainly beyond american mainstream society. His subjects ranged from hermits, religious recluses, white supremecists, marginal and to some extent broken and troubled individuals. Soth also explored the written and online manuals and advice available to support those who want to live ‘off grid’, even creating a survival manual himself.


Copyright Alec Soth

Much of the work was again on a very larges scale with the beauty of his very effective use of large format film shining through, even when the subject material was more troubling. It was again clearly evidenced that he engaged with his subject at quite a deep and meaningful level and I couldn’t help thinking there was some real risk in the body of work, given that some of those he made images of were frankly quite dangerous!

The vitrine in this space contained an intriguing collection of artefacts reflecting both research and engagement with this topihe exhibit is a collection of large scale works that mix environments  portstaure with sense 

Soth Broken Manual 2-4987

I was troubled by this work but also drawn to it, it appears to me that this body of images and artefacts, like the previous exhibits, provides strong evidence of Soth’s ability to peel back the layers of contemporary society, using his camera as a tool,  to make meaningful statements that transcend the pictorial content images themselves. Frankly, I was really moved by Soth’s skill, technical competence but most of al his insight.


This was the gallery and exhibit of the show. It was also very different. Firstly although it retained the giant snake of the previous two galleries it was all in black and white. Also it was made digitally. Mimicking the news style photography. Soth had been a newspaper photographers in the early part of his career. the work explores the nature of truth and some of the text connected with th images come form the songs that were part of American culture in a time before rock and roll.

soth songbook

Copyright Alec Soth

Although there is a very journalistic feel to many of the large images there was something quite artificial about them too, perhaps it was the very quirky  and apparently posed subject matter of some of the images.

I did struggle somewhat with this part of the exhibition, in part because it didn’t have the dramatic beauty of the earlier works in the show, but also perhaps because I found less coherence with this work and the other three exhibits. I fully accept that this is about me though rather than the work.

There were also the mini newspaper publication that were aprs of the exhibit, set out in vitrines and produced in partnership with a print journalist friend. The overall effect t me was something helpfully mocking about the print media and its relationship with truth. As stated though I found this work the hardest to read, but none the less engaging.

Some thoughts on the nature of this exhibition

During  the curator led tour of the exhibition, Kate Bush referred to Soth as being a very generous artist. This was a direct reference to the contents of the vitrines in each of the exhibition spaces. Soth was very open about his book making process from the genesis of an idea to its final execution. Bush suggested that many artists keep their processes secret, just wanting to share the final work and not the journey to completion. Soth’s generosity is perhaps in part that he sees himself as an educator as well as artist. There is also something about his self confidence that allows this level of sharing. Both also perhaps feels that the work is more than the final images and i was veritably left with the sense of having visited a very intellectually engaging visual installation.

Little Brown Mushrooms is Soth’s publishing company, as stated earlier, the book really is his preferred medium.  I couldn’t help wondering about the title. In the days when I looked at the work of Ansel Adams and other f64 group photographers, the pulsihing house with the printing process Adams felt did justice to the zone system created  monochrome images he made is called Little Brown. This company still prints his collected works. I couldn’t help wonder was this choice of title a coincidence, may be may be not, it did set me thinking though!

Key learning points from the Visit


  • Landscape photography can be biographical
  • The notion of the road trip can be slow and evolving project
  • Landscape and portraiture can , when skilfully captured, sit well in a singular narrative
  • Print Big!! this work stood out for its ever increasing scal
  • Photo-books can go through a range of generations before settling on a final form. Soth’s show the development of ideas over time in a very revealing and inspiring manner
  • Engagement with subjects yields dividends, Soth’s slow but methodical appraoch engages his subjects allowing him to really get lots fro them
  • Immersion in a theme can lead to outcomes that were not originaly intended. Broken Manual in particular demonstrates this.
  • Soth, through this exhibition is utterly inspiring!!!


Soth, A. (2015) Gathered Leaves-Exhibition Notes

Soth, A. (2015) Gathered Leaves found at: (Accessed  January 2016)

Video Interview with Soth:

Claude Cahun: Beneath This Mask, East Gallery, NUA, Norwich

Exhibition Visit, 9th  January 2016

Cahun NUA (1 of 1)

‘Beneath This Mask’ is a collection of 42 black and white images made by Claude Cahun between 1918 and the mid 1947. The images were displayed in symmetrical groups in the new Gallery East that is part of the Norwich University of the Arts. This collection is part of a travelling exhibition from the Hayward South Bank Centre. I was not familiar with the work of this artist prior to the exhibition but found it a very rewarding and thought provoking exhibition principally because:

  • Cahun’s work looked to me to be avery much ahead of its time
  • Cahun’s surrealist experiments with gender identity are as relevant now as when these images were made, nearly a century ago in some cases.
  • Cahun’s use of strong composition, self parterre and theatrical poses made m thinks in a different way about the photograph as information and the themes explored in the final section of Expressing Your Vision

Claude Cahun was the taken name of Lucy Renee Mathilde Schwob a French citizen born in Nantes in 1894. She was the niece of Marcel Schwob the avant-garde writer. Cahun contributed to the surrealist and avant-garde movements through her photography and writing, although her recognition only came posthumously.

Cahun 1

Copyright Jersey Archive

The work which is very biographical, contains many self portraits, some of which are very theatrical in nature. In some of the images she photographs her life long companion Suzanne Alberte Malherbe. Like Cahun Malbherbe took on a gender neutral pseudonym, Marcel Moore. Together they moved from France to Jersey in the mid 1930’s to pursue their artistic endeavours.
Of particular interest to me as I researched Cahun was an exhibition of her work staged by David Bowie in 2007. Given Bowie’s recent death, ironically the day after I saw this exhibition, it is interesting to view Bowies work through the lens that Cahun was creating half a century before Bowie experimented with gender reversal and an androgynous presentation of self.


Copyright Jersey Archive

As mentioned there is a clear exploration of gender and many of the images present an an intentional androgynous view of the subject. In the 1920’s Cahun was experimenting with gender at a number of levels and was also involved in theatre and writing as well as photography. The link to theatre is interesting, in that her work explores different persona’s, a feature of theatrical work in general.

I have to say I found many of the images strangely contemporary in terms of the portrayal of their subjects, indeed it was hard tho think that many of the images were 70 or 80 years old. I was not surprised to read in the exhibition notes the links made to the work of Cindy Sherman.

In the organisation of the work there was a real sense of exploration and the self portraits move from being theatrical to being much more explicitly surreal. I was left with a sense of an artists pushing boundaries in a time when making this sort of work will almost certainly have been treated with challenges


Copyright Jersey Archive

Cahun was a resistance activist during the Nazi occupation of the Channel Islands and was eventually arrested and imprisoned. Sentenced to death by the German administration on the islands she was saved from this fate with the liberation of Jersey in 1945. In reality though the death sentence was only postponed, her health was severely damaged by her time in prison and Cahun died at the age of 60 in 1954.

images cahun

Copyright Jersey Archive

In summary I think Cahun was a ground breaking artist , ahead of her time who has only recently been brought to modern audiences. There is much to learn about surrealism from her work and she offers an alternative approach to that of other artists of her time and those who came later in exploring the power of images to investigate and challenge gender and self.

Claude Cahun: Beneath This Mask: Exhibition Notes, Hayward Touring Exhibition 2015

David Bowie on Cahun: found at (accessed 12/1/2016)

Claude Cahun: The Soldier with no Name: found at: (accessed 12/1/2016)


Frantz Fanon- Bruno Boudjelal, Autograph ABP, Rivington Place, London

Exhibition Visit, 5th November 2015

While in London for work recently I found  a couple of hours to revisit Rivington Place to see the Bruno Boudjelal exhibition, ‘Frantz Fanon’.

His reflective and somewhat haunting work about the life of Frantz Fanon, the anti colonial writer, philosopher and Psychiatrist, was set out in a single gallery space at the venue.  The work was displayed in a very darkened room with the images illuminated with spotlights. This arrangement set the tone of the exhibition in many respects and I think augmented the effect the artist wanted to create with the work. On the opposite walls to the images were quotes from Fanon’s life and work, these were in differing size fonts, perhaps suggesting emphasis?

I was familiar with Fanon and in particular his final written work: The Wretched of the Earth, originally published in 1961 and now a Penguin Classic.  As a student in the early 1980’s I had read this book along with other writings by Fanon. His work challenged colonialism, the impact of occupation and the lasting racism inherent in colonial powers. As a doctor and Psychiatrist Fanon presented a unique view of colonialism and oppression. How Fanon is seen today depends on ones perspective and these can range from him being a visionary anti racist, all the way to a political and revolutionary leader.

The artists statement about the work says:

“This series is based on Frantz Fanon; a Martinique born French-Algerian psychiatrist, philosopher, revolutionary and writer whose work is influential in the fields of post colonial studies. I felt it was important, at a point where Algeria is celebrating its fiftieth birthday, to consider the thoughts and life story of Fanon, his relation with Algeria, his position as one of the most important post-colonial thinkers, and finally the story of his journey as a human being.”

Bruno Boudjelal

The exhibition its self was a collection of large scale black and white prints taken in locations where Fanon had once lived. These included images of his birth place in Martinique, images of Algiers, Blida in particular, where he practiced as a psychiatrist and formulated many of his most influential ideas and images of Tunisia where he spent the last days. There were also images of individuals, one of the portraits was of an old man who had been one of Fanon’s last patients.

The images had a ethereal almost ghost like quality and had the look of very aged ‘personal’ photographs, the sort that can be very valuable to their owner but have less meaning to wider viewers. The image below typifies this, it is vignetted, focus is uncertain and the image was taken at an ‘off true’ angle. This was I assume the artists intent.


Copyright Bruno Boudjelal

Looking at the images I was reminded of Clare Strands work: Getting Better and Worse at The Same Time‘. A central premise of this work as Strand (2015) sets out is:

“……can works continue to degrade yet still retain their value, their aesthetic and maintain a sense of reason.” 

Boudjalel’s has perhaps intentionally created this sense of the past seen though apparently aged and in some respects degraded images. They create a mood rather than a sense of the pictorial.

It is strange the thoughts that come to you in a an exhibition because I also thought about Sontag’s (1977) reference to Jean-Luc Goddard’s 1963 film ‘Carabiniers’ in which the treasure and spoils that two peasant soldiers bring home after war are a suitcase full of photographs, photographs seen as having intrinsic value as objects, artefacts and to many, treasures. 

Although very loosely pictorial, Boudjelals gave me a sense of images as treasures and this added to the biographical journey through the key locations in Fanon’s life. The work also seems to create a sense of melancholy, of things lost and forgotten places. Perhaps also Fanon’s work. As an experiment I asked the attendant in the gallery about their knowledge of Fanon, they had none prior to the exhibition. I wonder was a motive for Boudjelal to reflect that Fanon may now be forgotten or less prominant?

This is particular poignant in the present time with media coverage of the refugee crisis and the racism that seems to abound. Fanon and his commentary on the psychological impact of post colonialism, seems to be very current in many respects.

The images all had a aged look, the artists had I think wanted to create a sense of time passing and the look of an old photograph. It was only after the exhibition visit that I read that the gallery had billed it as an installation. In hindsight, this makes sense because  I think the artist wants the viewer to have a sense of Fanon and his work as something of the past, but simultaneously link to to the present.

From a purely photographic viewpoint Boudjalel presents the medium as a different way to consider a biography. His use of a somewhat oblique imagery of a place, presented as intentionally  ‘aged’ looking photographs, the sort that might be kept by an individual as a memento, set the tone of the whole exhibition. Whilst the work was essentially records of landscapes and people, this work could perhaps be seen as a sort of aftermath  documentary style?

In summary the exhibition was engaging and I was left with a desire to re read Fanon’s “Wretched of the Earth”, something I am currently doing. The power of images to spark action in the viewer!

Fanon, F. (1961) The Wretched of the Earth, Penguin ,London

Sontag, S. (1977) On Photography, Penguin, London

Strand, C. (2015) Getting Better and Worse at The Same Time, found at : // (Accessed 15 November 2015)

East London Photography Festival

Study Visit 24th October 2015

This was my third OCA study visit and it proved to be an excellent learning experience. My group was led by Rob Bloomfield and he struck a good balance between allowing students time to engage with the work in three separate exhibitions whilst also providing tutorial support through comments and questions. This approach does make a study visit a much more valuable experience than just a visit to an exhibition.

All three exhibitions that were part of the wider East London Photography Festival were quite different in terms of themes and content and in terms of the learning opportunities they offered to me. I will describe each in turn and as ever in such a blog entry it is in reality hard to do justice to the full experience each of the exhibitions offered.


DriftPhotography of contemporary urban environments, Shop 7, Truman Brewery

Drift 1 (1 of 1)

Drift, my experiment shifting perspective

The first visit of the day was to the Truman Brewery, Shop 7 Gallery, a shop like venue in the heart of the shopping streets off Brick Lane and part I believe of the Truman Brewery complex.

As the exhibition guide states:

‘Drift Exhibition will bring together the work of 11 up an coming international photographers as part of the Urban Photo Fest in conjunction with Tate Britain during Photomonth East London in October 2015’

This was a very mixed selection of work by a range of artists who had just completed the Goldsmiths College MA in Photography and Urban Studies. Rob Bloomfield alerted us that this was in effect the final year show for these students. Some further research revealed that this show had been crowd funded using Kickstarter and this funding had provided the resource for the exhibition, the hire o the space and the production of the associated materials. Rob also let us know the fact that this was not a curated exhibit. This was clear upon arrival at the gallery. To me there was too much work in too small a space, this is not a criticism, but rather an observation. That said I have not visited degree shows and this might be a feature of this sort of exhibit.

Further research also highlighted that the course the students had followed was in the Sociology Department at Goldsmiths and social and cultural learning is a large part of the programme of study and research they had followed. In retrospect this made sense because the associated exhibition guide at first reading appeared quite oblique and initially not that easily accessible. The artist’s motives were I assume, much more complex than the images initially appeared.

Because of the wide range of work in the exhibition I chose to focus on the work of a small number of the artists work on display after my initial survey of the whole body of work. I then gravitated to the work that I found the most engaging. I will talk about these in turn and reflect on my own learning from the visit.

Bas Losekoot – In the company of strangers

Of all the artists I found this work the most accessible. This was an interesting collection of very clear and sharp scenes from the city that were beautiful and full of detail. The work posed questions. Images of people going about their business but framed and composed to reveal something about life in a large city. Losekoot himself suggests:

“I have always conceived the street as spectacle; I spend a lot of time observing its movement, rhythms and patterns.”

What was most striking in the images were the notions of relationships, loneliness and alienation, all very common themes for the street photographer. Losekoot had however managed to capture some genuinely intriguing moments that ask the viewer to think about life in an urban context.

Although different, there were some similarities to the work of Philip-Lorca Decorcia in his work ‘Heads’ I thought. Something about the light and sharpness, but also the sharp homing in on the subject leading the viewer to consider questions about their lives. I also found some similarity to Paul Graham’s recent work: The Present. In particular the image below which I think is particularly powerful with its allusions, the city, power an possibly alienation. There are several images in Graham’s work that also suggest revelation. This was particularly a feature in the  Losekoot  work I feel.


Copyright Bas Losekoot 2015

In all I found this to be an engaging set of images that left me wanting to see more and research Losekoot’s work further.

Carlo Navato – Spaces and otherness

The large-scale square images of this artist drew me too them immediately. At first they appeared to be abstract and simple. On closer inspection they contained considerable amounts of information. Reading the exhibition guide the work was inspired by Michel Foucault’s 1967 essay ‘Des Espace Autres’. I was familiar with Foucault’s essay and the concept of heteropia and had read of others using the term to describe  a space as having  the potential to have more layers of meaning than initially meets the eye. This is a recurrent theme in writing about architecture and the built environment.

I think the artist had really captured Foucault’s concept in the art he had created. Take for example the image below, although simple the snow covers up the real details of the place leaving the viewer uncertain about where and what this image is about.


Copyright Carlos Navato 2015

Our associations with a traffic cones are similarly multi layered, for example as part of an official action (on road or car parks) and also whimsically, when they are stolen and placed in other some times inappropriate places. And of course sometimes they are just abandoned.

The simplicity of the scenes in all his images and their composition belie the complex questions that the works pose. I was left wanting to see more of this work

Although perhaps siting within the landscape genre, each of the images in the set had signs of human presence in the landscape.  Again I liked this work and will undertake some further research into this artist’s work. I was also interested in the artist’s use of quite muted colours, which worked well with the very, linear and graduated composition of the work. The composition also presented challenge, again in the image above the proximity of the top of the cone to the trees in the far distance and the horizon, slightly jar, but also satisfy! All in all very engaging work to me and my interest in rural landscapes as but environment


Beatrice Tura- Terra Firma

Beatrice Tura’s work was one of the smallest exhibits in the show. With just four monochrome framed images her work focused on  the notion of the ‘constant movement’ of the urban soil. We had the advantage of Beatrice talking to us about about her work at the gallery. She described how her work records the changing city through images of the ground, indeed she talked about seeing change and the transient, by looking down at your feet. In summary, the constant change in the city takes its toll on the surfaces on which we walk and the changing ground beneath our feet. It is this that she recorded, perhaps at a metaphor for the ever changing urban landscape.

She described not setting out with a specific idea in mind when she started to make the work. Rather, as she saw scenes she then recorded them and then developed the idea from this.

In many respects this is very different to the approach I am taking in my OCA course of study where planning and preparation are very much in advance of any image capture. This artist offered an interesting and valuable alternative and insight into how she worked and how her work developed over time.

There was an abstract simplicity to her work that can be seen in the image below.

tura 2

Copyright Beatrice Tura 2015


Keith Greenough – Lifting the Curtain, The Town House Gallery

Keith Greenough’s (a recent OCA Graduate) exhibition, ‘Lifting the Curtain’ was a high point of the study visit and the second exhibition of the day. What was particularly enjoyable was that the artist was there in person and he delivered an excellent overview of his work, setting out his motivation, the genesis of the work, how he researched and developed the idea and how he executed the whole project. His description was both engaging and informative. A real bonus was the insight he offered into understanding final year work with the OCA.

Keith 1


All photographed in the East End of London and based on a contemporary take on a Victorian survey of the poor, the exhibition was made up a large beautifully composed and exposed colour prints taken in the pre dawn hours.

Andrews Road

Copyright Keith Greenough 2014

As Keith described in his excellent talk, Charles Booth a Victorian philanthropist undertook in 1889 a survey of poverty of the urban poor in East London. Booth’s survey created a view that suggested:

“East London lay hidden behind a curtain on which were painted terrible pictures”.

Keith’s work captured something of the spirit and cadence of the statements and quotes about the urban poor recorded by Booth in his survey. The interplay between text and image is excellent and what is created is something greater than the sum of the parts. The work illustrates something Keith referred to as the use of ‘parallel text’, not captions, but rather words that encourage the viewer to think and conceive of the images in a range of ways. For me this worked very well. Keith’s contemporary 21st images did transport me back to the time of Booth, asking the question, how much has really changed? I had come across this notion of the link between image and text in my study of the work of Paul Seawright, although it was Keith who used the term parallel text. Like Seawright’s 1988 work: Sectarian Murders, Keith was operating in the realm of Aftermath photography, a subtler and indeed oblique take on the concept of documentary photography. Cotton (2004) in fact describes this approach as a sort of anti documentary image making.

From a purely photographic perspective the work has a cinematic quality, in part created by the large very high quality colour prints, but also by the level of detail delivered by Keith’s use of medium format digital image making. There is to me a very sophisticated and simultaneously satisfying composition to the images and the  light within the compositions is to my eye quite beautiful. Keith explained his rationale for using a large format view camera with adjustments allowing him to correct verticals in the buildings he photographed. The use of digital technology supported the sense of urgency he described in the actual image making, not least because he chose to make the images in the hour or so  before sunrise, when the streets would be deserted of people and traffic. This gave him all the advantages of the view camera for architectural work, but the immediacy of a digital medium.

Wentworth Street

Copyright Keith Greenough 2014

I found the work very engaging because it created a level of intrigue, the absence of human activity in the heart of the city raises lots of questions for the viewer before the text associated with each image is even considered.

The text connected to each image had been taken directly from Booths survey and was even printed in a font matching the printing in the original published survey, a very nice unifying touch.
A further connection I found really interesting and important in this work was the link to my current to work within chapter 4 of Expressing Your Vision, the language of light. In particular the beauty of artificial light. Keith’s choice to make his images in the brief time before sunrise, when the city scenes he selected would be devoid of human activity and also bathed in the light of sodium, mercury and neon. I have really been drawn to this part of the Expressing Your Vision course and Keith’s work significantly influenced my choice of assignment 4. More about that within the background notes with assignment 4.


Syd Shelton – Rock Against Racism,  ABP Autograph Gallery Rivington Place

This was the final exhibition of the day and one that I had very much been looking forward to seeing. As a 50 something Shelton’s work about an important period in British history was all about my generation. In truth I was not prepared for its how much nostalgia this collection of images had on me! Seeing friends from school  in three of the images sealed the overwhelming sense of nostalgia the exhibit had on me. In fact I travelled to London two weeks after this first visit to look at the work again, to really get a sense of the work from a photographic, documentary and artistic perspective.

RAR 2 (1 of 1)

The ABP Autograph gallery space was light and airy and the walls were filled with many 24×16 and 24×36 prints taken from Shelton’s 35mm negatives taken between 1976 and 1981, documenting the rise of the Rock Against Racism movement. Shelton, along with Red Saunders and members of the music community created Rock Against Racism in response to growing racist tensions in Britain. Ironically Shelton had been in Australia prior to the Rock Against Racism’s formation photographing the plight of aboriginal communities an their challenge living in urban Sydney. As Tulloch (2015) suggests:

“Shelton joined Rock Against Racism in early 1977 on his return to England from Australia. He did so because he found his birthplace a more racist than it had been when he left”

The work in the exhibition was predominantly large black and white images but also augmented with graphic work from the Rock Against Racism publications ‘Temporary Hoarding’ to which Shelton was a key contributor.

There is a real sense of social commentary in the work, which for me places it squarely in a ‘real time’ documentary genre. Shelton is not neutral though. By this I mean he was not a passive observer as some documentary image-makers. Shelton was at the heart of the activity using a mix of posed images and captured candid moments to contribute to the Rock Against Racism movements principles.

Again Tulloch (2015) says of the photographer:

“for Shelton this work was socialist act, what he call a graphic argument”

This is an important lens through which to see the work as whole. It was intended to make a difference, rather than just document.

That said it does document an interesting period in British history very well. From the repugnant National Front marches in the East End of London, through the initial Rock Against Racism events and on to the various Rock Against Racism and Anti Nazi League concerts around the England. Through these events young people around the country came together through music such as, Punk, New Wave, SKA and Reggae to make a statement against racism.

The quote below one of the large images of the crowds at the Rock Against Racism / Anti Nazi League Carnival 1 held on the 30th April 1978 in Victory
Park, Tower Hamlets, seems to sum up the purpose of the movement and perhaps something of Shelton’s motives for the work:

“…the moment when my generation took sides”

Billy Bragg

I was particularly pleased to be able to see the 35mm contact sheets for many of the images in the exhibition, they showed Shelton’s selection and cropping and gave some insight into his thinking. I also couldn’t help be impressed by the large evocative prints made from these tiny pushed HP5 and TRI-X emulsions!

There are far too many images to talk about in detail but the three images below set out in my view the essence of his important and inspiring body of work


In the image above , which shows the scale of attendance at the Victoria Park concert, Jimmy Pursey of Sham 69 has just read a speech to the crowds.  Although originally billed to play at the event, Sham 69 didn’t play at the concert  because they received death threats. A measure of the tensions of the time. The image has an almost biblical quality and the single person in front of the crowd, the look on his face and the stark grainy monochrome of the picture say much about the mood of the day.


Copyright Syd Shelton

In this posed image Shelton’s captures a fantastic look of defiance and confidence in the faces of this group of young people . Taken in Bethnal Green, the subjects must have been very much part of the youth close to the centre of Rock Against Racism’s activities.


Copyright Syd Shelton

Fans of the Ruts getting on to the  the stage at West Runton Pavilion, Cromer, Norfolk, in 1979. An image that is so much of its time!

Like many others of my generation this work struck a chord beyond nostalgia, a reflective thought about the politicisation of youth and the impact of young people from very different backgrounds coming together around a common cause.

As we read about right wing reactions to the Syrian refugee crisis in the autumn of 2015, there is more than ever the need to resurrect he spirit of April 1978!


Short summary of the day

This was an excellent but intense day. There does come a point where I am challenged to take in more information. I have for many years visited exhibitions but probably as a more passive observer. Since starting with the OCA I am trying to be much more engaged with the work, reflecting on it more deeply and thinking about how viewing and thinking about the work of other artists can inform my own developing voice. A really excellent day and a big thanks you o the OCA and fellow students for making it a very memorable event.


Cotton, C (2004) The Photograph as Contemporary Art, Thames and Hudson, London
DiCorcia, P-L. (2001) Heads, found at: (accessed 1st November 2015)
Foucault, M. (1984) Des Espaces Autres. Hétérotopies- found at: (accessed 1st November 2015)
Greenough, K. (2015) Lifting the Curtain found at: (accessed 1st November 2015)
Losekoot, B. (2015) Quoted in Drift (Exhibition Guide)
Seawright, P. (1988) Sectarian Murder- found at: (accessed 1st November 2015)
Shelton, S. (2015) Rock Against Racism ABP Autograph, London
Tulloch, C. (2015) Quoted in Shelton, S. (2015) pp11, op cit


Revelations: Experiments in Photography, Media Space, Science Museum-London

Study Visit- June 2015


This was the second of my OCA study visits and it proved to be a very valuable and engaging exhibition visit. Led by tutor Robert Enoch, we were a small group of just five students. The small size of the group, the excellent company of the other students and Robert’s helpful guidance, challenging questions and tutorial style made for a very rewarding learning experience. Well worth the 275 mile round trip I have to make to get the capital.

In all frankness in this blog entry I won’t be able to do justice to the rich experience that I believe this exhibition offers to anyone with an interest in photography as a science, photography’s history or photography as an art form. I will however try and give a little bit of the flavour to the exhibits and say something about what I learned and how the study visit has influenced me.

Revelations_21_KateElliottCopyright the Science Museum, London

My first observation is that this was well-curated exhibition. It had for me a clear narrative as I moved through the three separate but linked galleries of the exhibition. To me it is a narrative that tells the story of photography’s early application as a tool of exploration and discovery right from its earliest days. The exhibition moves on to the experimental search for new aesthetics that both mimic, challenge and at times parody the medium’s scientific heritage. It also suggests in some ways that the medium might be considered as coming full circle, although not all with agree with this idea. But I say this because within the final gallery of the exhibition the work is highly exploratory and experimental, work that raises issues about how we see and perceive the world. How photography as art practice not only continues to reveal things to us visually but how it forces us to re conceive what we think we are seeing and what we think we are experiencing. For me there was sense of revelation that ran through the whole exhibition, a linking thread that made the exhibition very coherent.

So, to describe some of the exhibits, their organisation and their impact. In the first gallery there was very much an ethos of photography as a medium of scientific exploration and discovery. Intertwined with the history of photography there were a whole range of scientific discoveries.

The narrative of the exhibition in this first gallery was one of making the invisible possible to see. From its inception in the first part of the nineteenth century early proponents of photography were pushing the boundaries of the technology of the day to reveal things never before seen. And whilst I can look on their work with my 21st century knowledge and understanding some of these images must have been truly a revelation in their time.

Berscht’s images of a House Mite under 50x magnification and his cross section of a stalk of wheat revealed a perspective on the world that at the time must have appeared remarkable. Simultaneously beautiful, revealing and educative, this work demonstrates how the medium was put to work to assist in understanding the world. Photography again is used as a tool to make the invisible visible. And not just to a few, but through the use of the print available for anyone to see. Similarly Dyson’s images of the solar corona, taken during a total eclipse, provided evidence of the complex nature of the sun, a sight previously only seen by those wealthy enough to travel the globe to see these rare events in person. There is a whole other strand of issues and ideas about how photography ‘democratised’ knowledge, which in the previous times would have been only known to an elite few, but that is for another time!

The theme of the investigation of the very small and the very large also runs through the first gallery with images of the very small things, insects, animals plants recorded under magnification and images of the heavens taken through high magnification, providing an insight into the distant and massive

An excellent example of the latter is Common’s group of three images of the Orion Nebula. These were taken using progressively longer exposures with his 36” telescope and show how as the exposure time increased the level of detail seen in the nebula reveals itself. By the third image a wealth of structure and scientific information that was hidden to the eye is captured on the plate in the camera. This set shows the boundaries of the medium being pushed to reveal hitherto hidden sights in the heavens.

Magnification was not the only tool used by early photographers. Draper’s image of the solar spectrum, isolating individual elements in sunlight, shows how applied photography started to reveal the universe at an atomic and elemental level.

I was also drawn to the daguerreotypes of the moon by Adams, protected in their beautiful padded and decorated cases. I have seen many daguerreotypes, but usually portraits, the half moon image captured on the metal surface of the medium was an entirely different use of this early technique. T

The Becquerel images of beta particles transported me back to A’ Level physics lessons some 35 years ago!

Perhaps some of the most well known images in the gallery were Muybridge’s photographs recording motion. Images that at the time revealed the intricacies of movement, a further example where photography allowed for new levels of understanding and insight into the physical world.

On entering the second gallery we encountered an excellent set of Moholy-Nagy photograms running across the first wall. To me they demonstrated a new exploration, this time not scientific but artistic, using the medium to test the boundaries of art. They were also interesting in the context of the whole exhibition, given they were made without a camera. Not far from them were some Man Ray photograms. Both sets of images highlighted a period in art and photography when the materials of the medium formed part of wider experiment in what constituted art. I am aware from reading about Moholy-Nagy, that making photograms was an activity he asked all the students who worked with him to undertake. He was keen that through this practice they gained understanding about the nature of material and the nature of light.

György Kepes unusual photograms gave the sense of having been created in three dimensions and like his Bauhaus contemporaries, the work seemed to explore the nature of shape, space and design. I am not at all familiar with his work and resolved at the exhibition to go and look into this work in more detail. A further blog entry will follow!

Berenice Abbott’s work was particular appealing and was both scientific and very aesthetically pleasing. Her images, taken while working at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology were undertaken for a publicly funded science textbook. They illustrate a range of scientific laws and principles. In particular her image of light passing through a prism with particles of dust captured in the illuminated beam were beautiful monochrome pictures. Her time laps images of objects in motion were also things of beauty. These high contrast monochromes, capturing the beauty and symmetry of objects in motion would in my view be just as much at home on a gallery wall as in a physics primer. Art and science combined in a thing of beauty!

This gallery also contained a number of reasonably large-scale examples of Edgerton’s work showing bullets passing through fruit. These ballistic experiments, presumably to test the effects munitions have on materials of different types hint at a dark purpose in their motive and background? I had seen these images in books but on a larger scale and in person they had a strangely artistic quality, there was a sense of satisfying composition in the placement of the objects and the high speed capturing of the moment that the bullets emerged from the fruit. As a group of us gathered around this work there was an interesting discussion about was there an artistic motive over written on the scientific purpose of the shot. It was interesting to consider Edgerton’s motives for just how he had set the shots up. Again, art and science intertwined in a thought provoking set of images. I also have to comment on the Edgerton’s ‘Milk drop’ images, freezing the moment after a splash. These would have been pushing the boundaries of the technology of the time in the use of high-speed shutters and strobes in perfect sync. Things that we might take for granted now.

What I liked about this second gallery was that I was familiar with quite a number of the works but only from small pictures in books, it was a rewarding experience to see real examples of these photographers work in the flesh. What was clear to me about Edgerton’s and Abbot’s work in particular, was that the small text book pictures I had seen before simply do not do justice to the scale and beauty of this work.

Revelations_14_KateElliottCopyright the Science Museum, London

The final gallery of the exhibition houses a range of very contemporary work. As you arrive at the entrance you are greeted with a giant painting like image that from a distance I thought was an image of a galaxy or nebula. As it turned out it was not. This large image was actually Pickering’s ‘Muzzle flash’ capturing the moment after the trigger is fired on a pistol, the bright light of the discharge of a bullet from the muzzle illuminates the gas created when the bullet was fired. Was there an element of homage to Edgerton in this work, where interestingly unlike Edgerton’s images no bullet can be seen? It is a bright and intriguing image; all the more ambiguous because it is one of a set entitled Celestial Objects. Reflecting on this work I can only assume that Pickering’s motive as suggested by the title is to mislead the viewer. I noted in my pre reading before the visit that the curator of the exhibition suggested that this work ‘misdirects’ the viewer’, I certainly experienced that misdirection.

This theme continues in Jansen’s large images nearby. Even from a few metres away I thought was looking at pictures from the Hubble Space Telescope. I think we have become accustomed to the colour palette used in Hubble images to reveal the distant universe, there is a sort of visual conditioning we pick up through the media, Internet and other means of viewing images. Jansen’s work is actually close up images of the surface of chemically based photo prints. Whilst he mimics the colours of the cosmos as seen by Hubble, we are actually looking at the surface of quite mundane photographs and how they degrade. I found this visually very engaging, but was left with an uneasy sense of perhaps having been manipulated by the artist. Is Jansen using the medium to educate, dupe or explore, I am uncertain? I am certain that this work made me think though!

Keeping with what seemed to be a developing astronomical theme in the final gallery the two large-scale images by Paglen really made me think as well. Using very high magnification optics designed for astronomical imaging, Paglen turned these on secret US military sites. Paglen who is a geographer as well as photographer has produced a collection called: The Dark Geography of the Pentagon’s Secret World. One of the images in the exhibition looked at first glance like a layered landscape abstract. On closer inspection a series of distant and blurred military vehicles photographed at a supposedly secret base could be seen. The other work was a cloud scene that at first glance appeared to have no real subject or composition. One of the other students reminded me of Steiglitz’s ‘Equivalents’ series when we had been discussing an image in the first gallery of the exhibition. This Paglen image was very different though; a tiny spec in one corner drew our attention. When looked at closely it was the silhouette of a plane or more probably a drone. The initially benign image then takes on a very different meaning. Paglen’s work is clearly deeply political, again the boundaries of the medium being explored.

‘Blow Up’ by Ori Gersht was perhaps the image that dominated the final gallery, this massive scale painting like picture taken with specialist high-speed equipment and techniques records the destruction in a controlled explosion of a bunch of flowers that had been frozen in liquid nitrogen. Shattering like a ceramic bouquet, the work has links to the fruit and flower painting traditions of 17th and 18th century northern Europe. Gersht’s work is clearly highly experimental and emblematic of the whole exhibition, as this was the image in the advertising of the event.

Learning Points

This was an excellent study visit really made valuable by the company of the other students and Robert’s excellent guidance through the whole exhibition, asking key questions and making linkages to work and practice beyond the exhibition. It was a very interactive learning experience.

In reality I have only really scratched the surface in this blog entry of the visual and intellectual interest this exhibition provided and I will try and return to it before it finishes in September. There are however some key areas of learning that are at the forefront of my thinking at this stage.

It is clear that since its inception photography has been a medium of exploration, there is also for me a continuing dialogue between art and science, given both digital and chemical photographic process rely on science irrespective of the output from the image maker. It might be argued that photography sits at an interface between art and science with valid and continuing roles in both fields. I also want to return to the notion of photography as a medium that ‘democratises’ knowledge. Perhaps the best example of this in the exhibition is Abbot’s work for the physics primer textbook. I need to explore this notion further.

At the start of the study visit Robert asked us to consider whether photography is a ‘plastic’ medium in the way that painting or sculpture might be considered plastic.

I left the exhibition with a resounding sense of ‘yes’ to this question. Photography presents almost boundless opportunities to view the world and for me one artists work epitomised this plastic nature of the medium.

Walead Beshty’s two large-scale images in the final gallery called ‘Transparency’ really attracted my attention and interest, particularly around Robert’s question.

WALEAD BESHTY Transparency (Positive)-0               WALEAD BESHTY Transparency (Negative)-0

Copyright Walead Beshty

The images were not taken with a camera but were recorded on two separate sheets of 5×4 film. One was Fuji transparency film the other Kodak Portra negative film. They had been packed (I assume in a double dark slide) in the bag of artist. What was recorded on the film were the effects of x-rays as the bags and by default the film passed through scanning machines labelled as ‘film safe x-ray machines’. In the tradition perhaps of Man Ray and Moholy-Nagy, these ‘x-raygrams’ raised for me lots of questions about travel, about security, about honesty, about transparency (as in the title) in the political sense, and about creativity. The strange asymmetric geometry recorded on the images through their travels in space and time had a really interesting effect on me and highlighted the possibilities of photography to communicate ideas. I have spent much of the last week pondering on this work specifically and as an outcome of the visit will, when time permits, explore this work and its possibilities further.

Like other students at the event I am keen to experiment more, but also to think about the purpose of the images that I make. A theme that I feel unites the earliest image makers in this exhibition with the most contemporary, is a clarity about the purpose of their work, whether that is a Fox Talbot image of the wings of a moth or a Jansen image exploring our perception of photography as medium.

Revelations (1 of 1)

All in all this was a very stimulating and exciting experience. I try to write a blog entry soon after a visit but it has taken me a week to process and consider what I saw and to plan and write this entry. A measure for me at least at how thought provoking this exhibition study visit was. I have to conclude with a huge thanks to my fellow students on this visit and to Robert for his fine job creatively marshalling us all through the work.

Clare Strand – Getting Better and Worse at the Same Time- Grimaldi Gavin Gallery, London

Study Visit May 2015

The second part of my recent study visit was to an exhibition by the artist Clare Strand.

Pre reading about the exhibition describes Strand’s exploration of the ‘promise and the limitations’ of the photographic medium, although as I looked at the exhibition in person I took this to mean the medium of the photograph.

In contrast to Barthes (1980) assertion that the photograph (as a medium) is invisible to the viewer, Strand’s work sets out to make the focus the medium itself.

In reading about the exhibition the week before I visited, I didn’t expect to like the work, but I have to say I found it strangely engaging. Illustrating the point that no end of description can be a substitute for seeing things in the flesh.

Key exhibits included a number of ‘kinetic’ machines of the artist’s own design that create effects using original or found images. In these works the artist uses energy to impact on images, fundamentally changing them though the actions of the machine.

The Entropy Pendulum for example, slowly abrades the surface of a new photographs (taken from Strand’s archive of original and collected images) each day of the exhibition. At the end of each day the damaged image is then framed on the wall and a new image is inserted into the machine. The work accelerates the natural processes that damage a photograph, changing their nature and appearance. Time is accelerated and the finite life of the medium is simulated with all the connotations of what that might mean?

Strand 1 (1 of 1)

The Happenstance Generator is a strangely compelling device that I found myself drawn to more than any of the other exhibits. A large Perspex sphere fitted with a fan and containing many cut up images taken from Strand’s personal image archive. At timed intervals the fans drive the images around the sphere. The machine then rests leaving the images in a temporary alignment before the machine starts again. The transitory juxtaposition of the images in the machine creates short lived relationships. These were really quite interesting as just as you get a sense of the relationships the fan fires up and the images are all in motion again.

Strand 2 (1 of 1)

The exhibition was very thought provoking an I liked it emphasis on the ephemeral nature of the photograph as a medium, it challenged my thinking about photography and I will look further at the work of this artist.


Barthes, R. (1980) Camera Lucida, Vintage UK

Deutsche Borse 2015 Photography Prize Exhibition, Photographers’ Gallery, London

Study Visit

Some reflections on the event, the work and my learning.

I recently attended my first OCA study visit to the above exhibition. As a very new OCA student I was keen to take part in one of these visits, in part to see what they entailed and in part to meet other students. Distance learning works well for me in fitting study around a busy work and family life, but it can be a solitary and somewhat lonely journey.

I will comment on the wider experience of the study visit later in the blog entry but at this stage I want to comment on the learning experience of the gallery visit and comment on the work.

The Deutsche Borse 2015 Photography Prize is run by the Photographers’ Gallery and sponsored by German Stock exchange organiser Deutsche Borse. The prize is intended to:

‘reward a living photographer for a specific body of work in an exhibition or publication format, within Europe, which significantly contributed to photography’

This study visit was to view and consider the four shortlisted finalists for this year’s award. I will comment on and consider their work in turn.

Nikolai Bakharev (b. 1946, Russia)

I first looked at the photographs of Nikolai Bakharev, a Russian photographer whose body of work at the exhibition documented a range of family and group portraits taken around public beaches in the former Soviet Union. His subjects, who were almost all dressed in swimwear, reveal an interesting mix of candour and intimacy but also a sense of privacy and the hidden.

Most of the images seem to be taken amongst bushes and trees, out of sight perhaps of the others enjoying he beach and leisure time. The exhibition information talks about public nudity being forbidden in Soviet Russia. A wider search on the internet of Bakharev’s work shows that he has made many studies of nudes in private and public spaces, although there where none in this exhibit. Perhaps for the subjects of the images, being photographed they had a sense of the risqué in the attire they were wearing?

The images, predominately in a square format were taken with the sitter’s permission as they relaxed at public beaches in the former Soviet Union. Bakharev, himself a trained mechanic was, perhaps like his subjects, escaping the trials of daily life and he captures moments of peace and pleasures in lives that might be otherwise quite different. The Soviet Union in its final years was a deeply unsettled place. The images look to be composed and staged to an extent and some could be confused for formal family photographs, with the photographer being more intimate with the sitter than perhaps Bakharev was? A measure of his skill as a photographer in achieving his level of intimacy with what must have been complete strangers.

Whether by association and knowledge of the eastern block (I travelled there a lot in my youth and during communist times) there is for me a hint of the end of an era, of things changing and of uncertainty. There is a defiant confidence in the faces of some of those photographed, particularly in the intimate moments of some of the work featuring younger people.

It is true that there are some very poignant moments of genuine enjoyment, affection and association in this collected work. It is also a very strong, almost social anthropological record of a time now gone when the collective consciousness of a nation was driven by a strict and imposed socio-political system that limited individual freedoms. To me the strength of these images is that they capture moments when the collective communist will was at its lowest. I could of course be reading too much into the work but I found it coherent and engaging.

I do have to say however that in spite of enjoying the work I was confused at its inclusion in the short list. In spite of some very strong images I could not see how it met the remit of the prize in that it was unclear to me that it significantly contributed to photography?

Zanele Muholi (b1972 South Africa)
Faces and phases

I visited this work next and was taken a back by the strength of the wall of black and white portraits that for me dominated the exhibition space. Although made up of many posed images of LGBT individuals, it presented to me as a single connected and coherent image.

Muholi 1 (1 of 1)

Although the portraits had been posed, there was simultaneously a mix of pride and defiance in the faces of the subjects. The exhibition text and Muholi’s book tell something of the oppression, persecution and sometimes death of the LGBT community in South Africa and the context in which the images were made is clearly a complex one.

Describing herself as a ‘Visual Activist’ her work sets out to present a story to the wider world about oppression and prejudice in her home country of South Africa. The wall of portraits was augmented with a drawn wall hanging telling the stories, some cases from a parent’s perspective, of the sad fate that had befallen some LGBT people. I had mixed views about how well this artefact supported the work. The words where very powerful, but to my eyes it looked like the it had been created to look like it had been written in many different hands. This didn’t quite work and its message was slightly lost in the artifice of the wall hangings creation.

In addition to these dominant works there was also some large colour images of LGBT wedding ceremonies that were all together more celebratory of diversity than the rest of the work. There was also some video work that in all honesty I didn’t have time to appreciate fully.

I was left with a sense of a multi-media approach to documentary story telling that gave me a genuine sense of Muholi’s activism and her search for notions of identity in a society where there is clearly an orthodox and archaic view about sexuality and gender. The work resonated with the artist’s intention to say something about prejudice being ‘alive and well’ in a nation racked with inequality for generations. Now there are just new forms of inequality. The work appealed to the social psychologist in me and I felt this exhibit did push the boundaries of photography in a way that the prize judges would be seeking in coming to a final decision about a winner. This was a cohort and strong body of work that had deep impact on me as the viewer.

Mikhael Subotsky (b 1981 South Africa) and Patrick Waterhouse (b.1981 UK)
Ponte City

This was the third exhibit I visited and for me the most powerful. The artists had created a mix of large-scale photographs, collected artefacts, light towers of transparencies and 18 slim photobooks all on the theme of ‘Pont City’.

Pont City, a city centre tower block in central Johannesburg was built in a concrete ‘Brutalist’ style as accommodation for the aspirational middle classes in apartheid South Africa. The 54 storey block never fufilled its ambition and became a dilapidated home to drug dealers and the poor. Pont City is to me a study of the urban poor in its extreme. Some of the large images, particularly the one of the three robed priest praying in the open air and refuse with Pont City towering behind has an almost biblical quality harking back to renaissance painting.

The large image of the concrete and rotting interior of the building ‘Clearing the Core’ is like a vision of an imaginary dystopian future, but is actually in the here and now! This image for met set the scene for the whole exhibit.


Clearing the Core-Copyright Subotsky and Whitehouse

In addition to the large images there are some collected artefacts that form part of the exhibition, immigration papers and poignant letters to loved ones all displayed as a collage around a large picture of an immigrant boat. Above this collection of work is a sheet from a church newsletter saying ’Gods Plan for Humanity’. A saw much of the exhibition through the lens of this statement.

A further dimension of the work were the tall light boxes containing rows of transparencies, some looking out of tower block windows, others were of the hundreds of doors in the building, behind which many drug dealers appear to operate. The light boxes were very evocative and as well as being visually beautiful, also mimicked the tower block in stature, making for a strong and enduring sense of the place.

Point Cenre2 (1 of 1)

For me however the strongest part of the work were a series of ‘found image’ collages. These were pictures that had been found in the rubbish and detritus of the building that the Subotsky and Whitehouse had then located the original places in Pont City where the found photographs had been taken. They then re photographed the scene pasting in the found image. As well as been visually engaging, there was a poignancy about where the original people who had taken these photographs now might be? The collages said much about the transient nature of the inhabitants of Pont City and how far removed they were from the original intended occupants.

The photobooks were very powerful too. I only had tome to look a two in detail. Both told different stories, fictions about the place using a mix of text and pictures to imagine different futures for the location and the inhabitants. They augmented the work creating a rich sense of research and activity by the artists. To an extent, this work is in part what Cotton (2004) refer to as Aftermath Photography (pp10), in that it looks at the impact of previous events on the contemporary, in both a journalistic but also artistic manner.

The overall effect of the exhibition was to present a detailed, multi media study of a decaying edifice in which a dystopian future exists in the here and now for many of the inhabitants. The work is eclectic but coherent and for me created a link between documentary and art photography. Indeed this is work to aspire to and it had a profound influence on my thinking about practice.

Viviane Sassen (b. 1972 Netherlands)

This was by far the most visually experimental work amongst the shortlisted finalists. There was a real mix of media ranging from pure pictorial photography, the abstract very conceptual images with a mix of colour and black and white video too.

Sassen who I believe has a background in fashion and art photography has explored the use of shadows in other works but in this body of work looks at shadow and reflection in both a pictorial and abstract manner. At the risk of being contentious (I am merely a new student to this world of conceptual and abstract art photography) I was uncertain about the title,
Umbra. Whilst shadows did play a feature in a number of the images I was left with a sense that the work looked into more detail around the notion of reflection and reflections and ‘Relexionem’ was a better title (retaining the Latin reference!) I also found it far more difficult to make the links between different works in the exhibit, I hunted for a coherence, a connection between the work but failed to make connections that were easily visible in the other three artists work.

I do recognise that this was photography at the boundaries of the art, to my limited knowledge anyway, and I would acknowledge this work perhaps most strongly met the brief of the competition organisers. There is therefore a tension for me in considering all four artists. I found Sassen’s work the least accessible and perhaps did not give it the time I gave to the others. I was also that last part of the exhibition and I recognise that I already had much buzzing in my head from the previous works. I have to ask the question would I have viewed it differently if I had visited it first. I am unsure, but it does raise questions about capacity to take in work and to do it justice. Whist I did not find this work the most interesting or appealing, it did make me think (far more than any of the other works) about my own image making, what I am trying to achieve and how I can create coherent bodies of work. In this sense it was perhaps the most influential from my visit to this gallery! There is a message here; you don’t have to like something for it to have significant influence!

The Experience of the Study Visit

So what did I make of the study visit in general? It was excellent to meet other OCA students and have the opportunity to look at work as a collective. I had the opportunity to share and reflect thoughts about the work with others and there was a genuine sense of some shared analysis.

The group work activity set by tutor Sharon Boothroyd in the gallery the café for us all to consider our favourite work and to justify our choice was very good and made for a very interactive experience. It was also good to hear alternative viewpoints. Critically reviewing art is not an exact science and a range of influences come into play, not least the context of any exhibition and the prior knowledge of an artist’s wider body of work. It was good to be put on the spot about committing to some conclusions about work.

I was part of a small group that felt the Subotsky and Whitehouse ‘Pont City’ was the strongest and most engaging of all the exhibits. We felt it deserved to win. Closely followed by the Muholi work coming a close second. For me there was a coherence to the Pont City exhibition that met the competition brief in strong mix of media, thought provoking imagery and wider message about life in post apartheid South Africa. It was worth the trip just to see this exceptional work.

On a final note, the study visit proved very valuable and I will make every effort, time permitting to attend as many of these as possible!


Cotton, C. (2004) The Photograph as Contemporary Art-Thames and Hudson


I have just learned that the Deutsche Borse 2015 Photography Prize judges have awarded the prize to Mikhael Subotsky and Patrick Waterhouse for Pont City! I am delighted.

New Order by Kevin Cummins-Proud Gallery Camden, London

Exhibition Visit – May 2015

New order Exhibition (1 of 1)

Kevin Cummins work in this exhibition documents members of the band New Order in a very close and personal manner. Captured on film, the band is pictured in a variety of contexts ranging from very evocative live concert images through to candid tour pictures. Cummins I believe was trusted confidant of the band and as a result he must have had significant access to bend members allowing him to create such an intimate body of work documenting members of the band from the formation in 1980 to their eventual split in the late 1980’s.

The images of candid moments are very engaging but I was particularly drawn to another dimension of the work. These where the clearly staged and posed photographs, perhaps intended for album covers or promotional material, This work had a classical quality that stood out in the body of work and perhaps says far more about the photographers style, motive and intent than the rest of the exhibition.

There is a variety of images in the exhibition, but it is held together through the predominant use of monochrome, Cummins use of quite high contrast exposure also adds to the coherence of the work. The exhibition links to the publication by Rizolli of Cummins new book, New Order.

The prints are a mix of formats predominately on 6×6 with some 35mm and they have all been printed at 16”x16 or 16”x20”. Almost all of the images were printed showing the edge of the negative, thus identifying the film stock. Most were printed on Silver Gelatin and with a smaller number of C type prints. The print quality was exceptional as was the overall presentation and framing. The prints were also for sale at the exhibition and started at about £1800, Cummins work obviously commands a high value.

There are a small number of colour prints, mostly 35mm. The quality of the printing is impressive given the small negative and large prints. In almost all cases the prints show the edge of the film allowing the viewer to see what format and film stock was used.

New Order (1 of 1)

What did I learn from this exhibition?

Well, I was impressed with how well the 35mm shots printed to a large scale, the use of ‘spot on’ exposure and slow colour film stock really demonstrated high quality use of this medium. It would be good to see some of the contact sheets (there were only two in the exhibition) to get a sense of how many shots were taken to achieve the finished results. Also there were some great examples of staged band shots. There we some ideas that I will try and incorporate into my own work. The candid shots also caught some pensive moments suggesting the photographer was able to capture moments on film without overly influence the environment be recorded. Again much to learn from this.